Articles

Built-in Firebird 3.0 functions (SDF aka Server Defined Functions)

Builtin functions below (except DECODE) are used only if there is no
UDF declared with the same name.
This choice of UDF or system function is decided when compiling the
statement and isn't changed if the statement is stored (trigger / SP).

Authors:
    Adriano dos Santos Fernandes <[email protected]>
    Oleg Loa <[email protected]>
    Alexey Karyakin <[email protected]>
    Claudio Valderrama C. <cvalde at usa.net>


---
ABS
---

Function:
    Returns the absolute value of a number.

Format:
    ABS( <number> )

Example:
    select abs(amount) from transactions;


----
ACOS
----

Function:
    Returns the arc cosine of a number.

Format:
    ACOS( <number> )

Notes:
    Argument to ACOS must be in the range -1 to 1 and returns a value in
    the range 0 to PI.

Example:
    select acos(x) from y;


-----
ACOSH
-----

Function:
    Returns the hyperbolic arc cosine of a number (expressed in radians).

Format:
    ACOSH( <number> )

Example:
    select acosh(x) from y;


----------
ASCII_CHAR
----------

Function:
    Returns the ASCII character with the specified code.

Format:
    ASCII_CHAR( <number> )

Notes:
    Argument to ASCII_CHAR must be in the range 0 to 255 and returns a value
    with NONE character set.

Example:
    select ascii_char(x) from y;


---------
ASCII_VAL
---------

Function:
    Returns the ASCII code of the first character of the specified string.

Format:
    ASCII_VAL( <string> )

Notes:
    1) Returns 0 if the string is empty.
    2) Throws error if the first character is multi-byte.

Example:
    select ascii_val(x) from y;


----
ASIN
----

Function:
    Returns the arc sine of a number.

Format:
    ASIN( <number> )

Notes:
    Argument to ASIN must be in the range -1 to 1 and returns a value in
    the range -PI / 2 to PI / 2.

Example:
    select asin(x) from y;


-----
ASINH
-----

Function:
    Returns the hyperbolic arc sine of a number (expressed in radians).

Format:
    ASINH( <number> )

Example:
    select asinh(x) from y;


----
ATAN
----

Function:
    Returns the arc tangent of a number.

Format:
    ATAN( <number> )

Notes:
    Returns a value in the range -PI / 2 to PI / 2.

Example:
    select atan(x) from y;


-----
ATAN2
-----

Function:
    Returns the arc tangent of the first number / the second number.

Format:
    ATAN( <number>, <number> )

Notes:
    Returns a value in the range -PI to PI.

Example:
    select atan2(x, y) from z;


-----
ATANH
-----

Function:
    Returns the hyperbolic arc tangent of a number (expressed in radians).

Format:
    ATANH( <number> )

Example:
    select atanh(x) from y;


-------
BIN_AND
-------

Function:
    Returns the result of a binary AND operation performed on all arguments.

Format:
    BIN_AND( <number>, <number> [, <number> ...] )

Example:
    select bin_and(flags, 1) from x;


-------
BIN_NOT
-------

Function:
    Returns the result of a bitwise NOT operation performed on its argument.

Format:
    BIN_NOT( <number> )

Example:
    select bin_not(flags) from x;


------
BIN_OR
------

Function:
    Returns the result of a binary OR operation performed on all arguments.

Format:
    BIN_OR( <number>, <number> [, <number> ...] )

Example:
    select bin_or(flags1, flags2) from x;


-------
BIN_SHL
-------

Function:
    Returns the result of a binary shift left operation performed on the arguments (first << second).

Format:
    BIN_SHL( <number>, <number> )

Example:
    select bin_shl(flags1, 1) from x;


-------
BIN_SHR
-------

Function:
    Returns the result of a binary shift right operation performed on the arguments (first >> second).

Format:
    BIN_SHR( <number>, <number> )

Example:
    select bin_shr(flags1, 1) from x;


-------
BIN_XOR
-------

Function:
    Returns the result of a binary XOR operation performed on all arguments.

Format:
    BIN_XOR( <number>, <number> [, <number> ...] )

Example:
    select bin_xor(flags1, flags2) from x;


--------------
CEIL | CEILING
--------------

Function:
    Returns a value representing the smallest integer that is greater 
    than or equal to the input argument.

Format:
    { CEIL | CEILING }( <number> )

Example:
    1) select ceil(val) from x;
    2) select ceil(2.1), ceil(-2.1) from rdb$database;  -- returns 3, -2


------------
CHAR_TO_UUID
------------

Function:
    Converts the CHAR(32) ASCII representation of an UUID
    (XXXXXXXX-XXXX-XXXX-XXXX-XXXXXXXXXXXX) to the CHAR(16) OCTETS
    representation (optimized for storage).

Format:
    CHAR_TO_UUID( <string> )

Important (for big-endian servers):
    It has been discovered that before Firebird 2.5.2, CHAR_TO_UUID and UUID_TO_CHAR work
    incorrectly in big-endian servers. In these machines, bytes/characters are swapped and go in
    wrong positions when converting. This bug was fixed in 2.5.2 and 3.0, but that means these
    functions now return different values (for the same input parameter) than before.

Example:
    select char_to_uuid('93519227-8D50-4E47-81AA-8F6678C096A1') from rdb$database;

See also: GEN_UUID and UUID_TO_CHAR


---
COS
---

Function:
    Returns the cosine of an angle (expressed in radians).

Format:
    COS( <number> )

Notes:
    The angle is specified in radians and returns a value in the range -1 to 1.

Example:
    select cos(x) from y;


----
COSH
----

Function:
    Returns the hyperbolic cosine of an angle (expressed in radians).

Format:
    COSH( <number> )

Example:
    select cosh(x) from y;


---
COT
---

Function:
    Returns 1 / tan(argument).

Format:
    COT( <number> )

Example:
    select cot(x) from y;


-------
DATEADD
-------

Function:
    Returns a date/time/timestamp value increased (or decreased, when negative)
    by the specified amount of time.

Format:
    DATEADD( <number> <timestamp_part> TO <date_time> )
    DATEADD( <timestamp_part>, <number>, <date_time> )

    timestamp_part ::= { YEAR | MONTH | DAY | WEEK | HOUR | MINUTE | SECOND | MILLISECOND }

Notes:
    1) WEEKDAY and YEARDAY cannot be used. It doesn't make sense.
    2) YEAR, MONTH and DAY could not be used with time values.
    3) All timestamp_part values could be used with timestamp values.
    4) When using hour, minute, second and millisecond for DATEADD and dates, the quantity added or
        subtracted should account at least for one day to produce effect (IE adding 23 hours to a date
        doesn't increment it).

Example:
    select dateadd(-1 day to current_date) as yesterday
        from rdb$database;


--------
DATEDIFF
--------

Function:
    Returns an exact numeric value representing the amount of time from the first
    date/time/timestamp value to the second one.

Format:
    DATEDIFF( <timestamp_part> FROM <date_time> TO <date_time> )
    DATEDIFF( <timestamp_part>, <date_time>, <date_time> )

    timestamp_part ::= { YEAR | MONTH | DAY | WEEK | HOUR | MINUTE | SECOND | MILLISECOND }

Notes:
    1) Returns positive value if the second value is greater than the first one,
       negative when the first one is greater or zero when they are equal.
    2) Comparison of date with time values is invalid.
    3) WEEKDAY and YEARDAY cannot be used. It doesn't make sense.
    4) YEAR, MONTH and DAY could not be used with time values.
    5) All timestamp_part values could be used with timestamp values.

Example:
    select datediff(week from cast('yesterday' as timestamp) - 7 to current_timestamp)
        from rdb$database;


------
DECODE
------

Function:
    DECODE is a shortcut to CASE ... WHEN ... ELSE expression.

Format:
    DECODE( <expression>, <search>, <result> [ , <search>, <result> ... ] [, <default> ]

Example:
    select decode(state, 0, 'deleted', 1, 'active', 'unknown') from things;


---
EXP
---

Function:
    Returns the exponential e to the argument.

Format:
    EXP( <number> )

Example:
    select exp(x) from y;


-----
FLOOR
-----

Function:
    Returns a value representing the largest integer that is less 
    than or equal to the input argument.

Format:
    FLOOR( <number> )

Example:
    1) select floor(val) from x;
    2) select floor(2.1), floor(-2.1) from rdb$database;  -- returns 2, -3


--------
GEN_UUID
--------

Function:
    Returns an universal unique number in CHAR(16) OCTETS type.

Format:
    GEN_UUID()

Important:
    Before Firebird 2.5.2, GEN_UUID was returning completely random strings. This is not compliant
    with the RFC-4122 (UUID specification).
    This was fixed in Firebird 2.5.2 and 3.0. Now GEN_UUID returns a compliant UUID version 4
    string, where some bits are reserved and the others are random. The string format of a compliant
    UUID is XXXXXXXX-XXXX-4XXX-YXXX-XXXXXXXXXXXX, where 4 is fixed (version) and Y is 8, 9, A or B.

Example:
    insert into records (id) value (gen_uuid());

See also: CHAR_TO_UUID and UUID_TO_CHAR


----
HASH
----

Function:
    Returns a HASH of a string.

Format:
    HASH( <string> )

Example:
    select hash(x) from y;


----
LEFT
----

Function:
    Returns the substring of a specified length that appears at the start of a string.

Format:
    LEFT( <string>, <number> )

Example:
    select left(name, char_length(name) - 10)
        from people
        where name like '% FERNANDES';


--
LN
--

Function:
    Returns the natural logarithm of a number.

Format:
    LN( <number> )

Example:
    select ln(x) from y;


---
LOG
---

Function:
    LOG(x, y) returns the logarithm base x of y.

Format:
    LOG( <number>, <number> )

Example:
    select log(x, 10) from y;


-----
LOG10
-----

Function:
    Returns the logarithm base ten of a number.

Format:
    LOG10( <number> )

Example:
    select log10(x) from y;


----
LPAD
----

Function:
    LPAD(string1, length, string2) appends string2 to the beginning of
    string1 until length of the result string becomes equal to length.

Format:
    LPAD( <string>, <number> [, <string> ] )

Notes:
    1) If the second string is omitted the default value is one space.
    2) The second string is truncated when the result string will
       become larger than length.
    3) The first string is truncated if its length is greater than the length
       parameter.

Example:
    select lpad(x, 10) from y;


--------
MAXVALUE
--------

Function:
    Returns the maximum value of a list of values.

Format:
    MAXVALUE( <value> [, <value> ...] )

Example:
    select maxvalue(v1, v2, 10) from x;


--------
MINVALUE
--------

Function:
    Returns the minimun value of a list of values.

Format:
    MINVALUE( <value> [, <value> ...] )

Example:
    select minvalue(v1, v2, 10) from x;


---
MOD
---

Function:
    MOD(X, Y) returns the remainder part of the division of X by Y.

Format:
    MOD( <number>, <number> )

Example:
    select mod(x, 10) from y;


-------
OVERLAY
-------

Function:
    OVERLAY( <string1> PLACING <string2> FROM <start> [ FOR <length> ] ) returns
    string1 replacing the substring FROM start FOR length by string2.

Format:
    OVERLAY( <string> PLACING <string> FROM <number> [ FOR <number> ] )

Notes:
    1) If <length> is not specified, CHAR_LENGTH( <string2> ) is implied.
    2) The OVERLAY function is equivalent to:
           SUBSTRING(<string1> FROM 1 FOR <start> - 1) ||
           <string2> ||
           SUBSTRING(<string1> FROM <start> + <length>)


--
PI
--

Function:
    Returns the PI constant (3.1459...).

Format:
    PI()

Example:
    val = PI();


--------
POSITION
--------

Function:
    Returns the position of the first string inside the second string starting at
    an offset (or from the beginning when omitted). When not found, returns 0.

Format:
    POSITION( <string> IN <string> )
    POSITION( <string>, <string> [, <number>] )

Example:
    select rdb$relation_name
        from rdb$relations
        where position('RDB$' IN rdb$relation_name) = 1;


-----
POWER
-----

Function:
    POWER(X, Y) returns X to the power of Y.

Format:
    POWER( <number>, <number> )

Example:
    select power(x, 10) from y;


----
RAND
----

Function:
    Returns a random number between 0 and 1.

Format:
    RAND()

Example:
    select * from x order by rand();


-------
REPLACE
-------

Function:
    REPLACE(searched, find, replacement) replaces all occurences of "find"
    in "searched" by "replacement".

Format:
    REPLACE( <string>, <string>, <string> )

Example:
    select replace(x, ' ', ',') from y;


-------
REVERSE
-------

Function:
    Returns a string in reverse order.

Format:
    REVERSE( <value> )

Notes:
    REVERSE is an useful function to index strings from right to left.

Example:
    create index people_email on people computed by (reverse(email));
    select * from people where reverse(email) starting with reverse('.br');


-----
RIGHT
-----

Function:
    RIGHT(string, length)
    Returns the substring of a specified length that appears at the end of a string.

Format:
    RIGHT( <string>, <number> )

Example:
    select right(rdb$relation_name, char_length(rdb$relation_name) - 4)
        from rdb$relations
        where rdb$relation_name like 'RDB$%';


-----
ROUND
-----

Function:
    ROUND(number, scale)
    Returns a number rounded to the specified scale.

Format:
    ROUND( <number> [, <number> ] )

Notes:
    If the scale (second parameter) is negative, the integer part of
    the value is rounded. Ex: ROUND(123.456, -1) returns 120.000.

Examples:
    select round(salary * 1.1, 0) from people;


----
RPAD
----

Function:
    RPAD(string1, length, string2) appends string2 to the end of
    string1 until length of the result string becomes equal to length.

Format:
    RPAD( <string>, <number> [, <string> ] )

Notes:
    1) If the second string is omitted the default value is one space.
    2) The second string is truncated when the result string will
       become larger than length.
    3) The first string is truncated if its length is greater than the length
       parameter.

Example:
    select rpad(x, 10) from y;


----
SIGN
----

Function:
    Returns 1, 0, or -1 depending on whether the input value is positive, zero or 
    negative, respectively.

Format:
    SIGN( <number> )

Example:
    select sign(x) from y;


---
SIN
---

Function:
    Returns the sine of an angle (expressed in radians).

Format:
    SIN( <number> )

Notes:
    Argument to SIN must be specified in radians.

Example:
    select sin(x) from y;


----
SINH
----

Function:
    Returns the hyperbolic sine of an angle (expressed in radians).

Format:
    SINH( <number> )

Example:
    select sinh(x) from y;


----
SQRT
----

Function:
    Returns the square root of a number.

Format:
    SQRT( <number> )

Example:
    select sqrt(x) from y;


---
TAN
---

Function:
    Returns the tangent of an angle (expressed in radians).

Format:
    TAN( <number> )

Notes:
    Argument to TAN must be specified in radians.

Example:
    select tan(x) from y;


----
TANH
----

Function:
    Returns the hyperbolic tangent of an angle (expressed in radians).

Format:
    TANH( <number> )

Example:
    select tanh(x) from y;


-----
TRUNC
-----

Function:
    TRUNC(number, scale)
    Returns the integral part (up to the specified scale) of a number.

Format:
    TRUNC( <number> [, <number> ] )

Notes:
    If the scale (second parameter) is negative, the integer part of
    the value is truncated. Ex: TRUNC(123.456, -1) returns 120.000.

Example:
    1) select trunc(x) from y;
    2) select trunc(-2.8), trunc(2.8) from rdb$database;  -- returns -2, 2
    3) select trunc(987.65, 1), trunc(987.65, -1) from rdb$database;  -- returns 987.60, 980.00


------------
UUID_TO_CHAR
------------

Function:
    Converts a CHAR(16) OCTETS UUID (that's returned by GEN_UUID) to the
    CHAR(32) ASCII representation (XXXXXXXX-XXXX-XXXX-XXXX-XXXXXXXXXXXX).

Format:
    UUID_TO_CHAR( <string> )

Important (for big-endian servers):
    It has been discovered that before Firebird 2.5.2, CHAR_TO_UUID and UUID_TO_CHAR work
    incorrectly in big-endian servers. In these machines, bytes/characters are swapped and go in
    wrong positions when converting. This bug was fixed in 2.5.2 and 3.0, but that means these
    functions now return different values (for the same input parameter) than before.

Example:
    select uuid_to_char(gen_uuid()) from rdb$database;

See also: GEN_UUID and CHAR_TO_UUID

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